The Book of Numbers provides some 17 references to atonement within its pages.
5 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 6 “Speak to the children of Israel: ‘When a man or woman commits any sin that men commit in unfaithfulness against the Lord, and that person is guilty, 7 then he shall confess the sin which he has committed. He shall make restitution for his trespass in full, plus one-fifth of it, and give it to the one he has wronged. 8 But if the man has no relative to whom restitution may be made for the wrong, the restitution for the wrong must go to the Lord for the priest, in addition to the ram of the atonement with which atonement is made for him. 9 Every offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they bring to the priest, shall be his. 10 And every man’s holy things shall be his; whatever any man gives the priest shall be his.’” (Numbers 5:5-10)
Here we see that many sins lie within this nature: “any sin that men commit in unfaithfulness against the Lord” (v.6). This is what we would describe as most sin, because sinning is a transgression of the divine covenant. Sin is committed when men and women are unfaithful to the Lord and doubt His law and His counsels, that when He says to avoid sin and flee from it, it is best. And yet, this sin is very specific. The word for sin committed against men here is ἀνθρωπίνων, a word that means “within human experience,” “against man,” as opposed to being a sin against the Lord. The New King James Version renders the verb as being a sin “that men commit in unfaithfulness against the Lord,” but this sin is committed against another human being as opposed to being committed against God.
This sin wouldn’t be the sin of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, for example, or a sin of blaspheming the Name of the Lord God, sins against the Divine for which one couldn’t be forgiven ever (blasphemy against the Holy Spirit) or for which someone was stoned to death (blaspheming the Name). Since this sin was related to the human experience, then the person could make restitution instead of being killed by restoring what they wronged plus an additional one-fifth or 20%. If the man or woman stole $200, for example, then he or she would give the $200 stolen plus another 20% of $200; the total given to the person would be the original $200 + $40 = $240. If the person could not restore the stolen property or money to the individual (the individual had passed away), and there was no family to accept the money, then the priest was to receive the money along with “the ram of the atonement” (Numbers 5:8), or in the Greek, kriou tou hilasmou. The word hilasmou is a possessive form of the word hilasmos, meaning “propitiation.” The ram of the propitiation, then, is the animal sacrifice offered to “propitiate” or appease the Lord because of the sin.
Numbers 6 pertains to the Law of the Nazirite:
Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘When either a man or woman consecrates an offering to take the vow of a Nazirite, to separate himself to the Lord, 3 he shall separate himself from wine and similar drink; he shall drink neither vinegar made from wine nor vinegar made from similar drink; neither shall he drink any grape juice, nor eat fresh grapes or raisins. 4 All the days of his separation he shall eat nothing that is produced by the grapevine, from seed to skin.
5 ‘All the days of the vow of his separation no razor shall come upon his head; until the days are fulfilled for which he separated himself to the Lord, he shall be holy. Then he shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow. 6 All the days that he separates himself to the Lord he shall not go near a dead body. 7 He shall not make himself unclean even for his father or his mother, for his brother or his sister, when they die, because his separation to God is on his head. 8 All the days of his separation he shall be holy to the Lord.
9 ‘And if anyone dies very suddenly beside him, and he defiles his consecrated head, then he shall shave his head on the day of his cleansing; on the seventh day he shall shave it. 10 Then on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of meeting; 11 and the priest shall offer one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering, and make atonement for him, because he sinned in regard to the corpse; and he shall sanctify his head that same day. 12 He shall consecrate to the Lord the days of his separation, and bring a male lamb in its first year as a trespass offering; but the former days shall be lost, because his separation was defiled. (Numbers 6:1-12)
The Nazirite whose vow before the Lord is broken because he came into contact with a dead body had to bring two offerings to the priest. In verse 11, one would be a sin offering and “make atonement” for the Nazirite (who could be man or woman; Numbers 6:2 says in the Greek, Ανὴρ ἢ γυνή, or aner or gune, Greek words that refer to male and female genders; in other words, both men and women could serve as Nazirites), and one would be a burnt offering. The two offerings required are found in 6:10: δύο τρυγόνας ἢ δύο νεοσσοὺς, or duo trugonas duo neossous, what we know as two turtledoves and two pigeons. The word for “make atonement” is exilasetai, the same word we’ve seen to refer to appeasing the Deity, God, by offering the sacrifice.
In Numbers 8, we find the Levites being ceremonially cleansed for the work of the tabernacle:
5 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 6 “Take the Levites from among the children of Israel and cleanse them ceremonially. 7 Thus you shall do to them to cleanse them: Sprinkle water of purification on them, and let them shave all their body, and let them wash their clothes, and so make themselves clean. 8 Then let them take a young bull with its grain offering of fine flour mixed with oil, and you shall take another young bull as a sin offering. 9 And you shall bring the Levites before the tabernacle of meeting, and you shall gather together the whole congregation of the children of Israel. 10 So you shall bring the Levites before the Lord, and the children of Israel shall lay their hands on the Levites; 11 and Aaron shall offer the Levites before the Lord like a wave offering from the children of Israel, that they may perform the work of the Lord. 12 Then the Levites shall lay their hands on the heads of the young bulls, and you shall offer one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering to the Lord, to make atonement for the Levites.
13 “And you shall stand the Levites before Aaron and his sons, and then offer them like a wave offering to the Lord. 14 Thus you shall separate the Levites from among the children of Israel, and the Levites shall be Mine. 15 After that the Levites shall go in to service the tabernacle of meeting. So you shall cleanse them and offer them like a wave offering. 16 For they are wholly given to Me from among the children of Israel; I have taken them for Myself instead of all who open the womb, the firstborn of all the children of Israel. 17 For all the firstborn among the children of Israel are Mine, both man and beast; on the day that I struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt I sanctified them to Myself. 18 I have taken the Levites instead of all the firstborn of the children of Israel. 19 And I have given the Levites as a gift to Aaron and his sons from among the children of Israel, to do the work for the children of Israel in the tabernacle of meeting, and to make atonement for the children of Israel, that there be no plague among the children of Israel when the children of Israel come near the sanctuary.”
20 Thus Moses and Aaron and all the congregation of the children of Israel did to the Levites; according to all that the Lord commanded Moses concerning the Levites, so the children of Israel did to them. 21 And the Levites purified themselves and washed their clothes; then Aaron presented them like a wave offering before the Lord, and Aaron made atonement for them to cleanse them. 22 After that the Levites went in to do their work in the tabernacle of meeting before Aaron and his sons; as the Lord commanded Moses concerning the Levites, so they did to them.
23 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 24 “This is what pertains to the Levites: From twenty-five years old and above one may enter to perform service in the work of the tabernacle of meeting; 25 and at the age of fifty years they must cease performing this work, and shall work no more. 26 They may minister with their brethren in the tabernacle of meeting, to attend to needs, but they themselves shall do no work. Thus you shall do to the Levites regarding their duties.” (Numbers 8:5-26)
Numbers 8 is primarily about the setting aside of the Levites for service in the work of the Lord and, as we’ve seen in Exodus 29, there had to be an atonement made for the Levites. The word for “cleanse them ceremonially” in Numbers 8:6 is ἀφαγνιεῖς, a word that consists of compounds aph (away from) and agneia, a word that means purification, purity, or cleanliness. In verse 7, the word agnismon refers to purification. They were to have the water of purification sprinkled on them, their bodies shaved, their clothes washed, then a bull for a grain offering and a bull for the sin offering.
Numbers 8:9-11 refers to the practice of the laying on of hands: “And you shall bring the Levites before the tabernacle of meeting, and you shall gather together the whole congregation of the children of Israel. So you shall bring the Levites before the Lord, and the children of Israel shall lay their hands on the Levites; and Aaron shall offer the Levites before the Lord like a wave offering from the children of Israel, that they may perform the work of the Lord.” First, the Levites were to be brought before the whole congregation (nation) at the tabernacle of meeting, where the people would pass their offerings to the priests. The children of Israel, the nation, was to “lay their hands on the Levites,” and Aaron, the high priest, was to offer the Levites as they offered a wave offering. The laying on of hands was to pray for the Levites, to commit them to God’s service, since the Lord said in another place that He chose the Levites to be the “firstborn” of the nation of Israel instead of the firstborn children:
11 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 12 “Now behold, I Myself have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of every firstborn who opens the womb among the children of Israel. Therefore the Levites shall be Mine, 13 because all the firstborn are Mine. On the day that I struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, I sanctified to Myself all the firstborn in Israel, both man and beast. They shall be Mine: I am the Lord.” (Numbers 3:11-13)
The Lord says the same thing here in Numbers 8:
16 For they are wholly given to Me from among the children of Israel; I have taken them for Myself instead of all who open the womb, the firstborn of all the children of Israel. 17 For all the firstborn among the children of Israel are Mine, both man and beast; on the day that I struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt I sanctified them to Myself. 18 I have taken the Levites instead of all the firstborn of the children of Israel. 19 And I have given the Levites as a gift to Aaron and his sons from among the children of Israel, to do the work for the children of Israel in the tabernacle of meeting, and to make atonement for the children of Israel, that there be no plague among the children of Israel when the children of Israel come near the sanctuary.” (Numbers 8:16-19)
Notice that the priests are being appointed, the Levites, “to make atonement for the children of Israel, that there be no plague among the children of Israel” (v.19). Again, the mention of atonement, the Greek word exilaskesthai, refers to making propitiation, making atonement, reconciliation, and so on. The Levites had to offer a sacrifice for their sins before they could be consecrated to the Lord’s service. It was a reminder that the Levites, the priestly line, wasn’t without sin. No matter how holy a place they stood in among the Israelites, they were not without sin. They had to answer to God for their own sin.
Now, there’s an interesting statement here in Numbers 8 about offering the Levites. The text says that Aaron was to offer the Levites “like a wave offering” (v.11) before the Lord. Verse 13 says the same thing, with the word apodoma being mentioned for the wave offering and the verb being apodoseis. The word being used here refers to “gift,” and the waving symbolized that the gift was for the Lord.
The word for atonement here is still exilassasthai, a word meaning “to atone” or “make atonement,” and this refers to the Levites: before they could be set aside to do the work of the ministry, they needed to be atoned for with a sin offering. One of the bulls was offered as a burnt offering, the other as a sin offering. The Levites had to have a sin offering for their sins and the other for the burnt offering to give the Lord a willing offering.
22 ‘If you sin unintentionally, and do not observe all these commandments which the Lord has spoken to Moses— 23 all that the Lord has commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day the Lord gave commandment and onward throughout your generations— 24 then it will be, if it is unintentionally committed, without the knowledge of the congregation, that the whole congregation shall offer one young bull as a burnt offering, as a sweet aroma to the Lord, with its grain offering and its drink offering, according to the ordinance, and one kid of the goats as a sin offering. 25 So the priest shall make atonement for the whole congregation of the children of Israel, and it shall be forgiven them, for it was unintentional; they shall bring their offering, an offering made by fire to the Lord, and their sin offering before the Lord, for their unintended sin. 26 It shall be forgiven the whole congregation of the children of Israel and the stranger who dwells among them, because all the people did it unintentionally.
27 ‘And if a person sins unintentionally, then he shall bring a female goat in its first year as a sin offering. 28 So the priest shall make atonement for the person who sins unintentionally, when he sins unintentionally before the Lord, to make atonement for him; and it shall be forgiven him. 29 You shall have one law for him who sins unintentionally, for him who is native-born among the children of Israel and for the stranger who dwells among them. (Numbers 15:22-29)
The Greek word for “unintentionally” (verse 24) is akousios, which is similar to the word hekousios, which is an adverb (it means “willingly” or “voluntarily”). The word akousios is the opposite, as the “a-” prefix negates the meaning; in this case, akousios is the opposite of hekousios, which means “unwillingly.” So, the person in mind here is the person that “unintentionally” commits sin (he or she didn’t mean to do it but did). The distinction of unintentional sin here and intentional sin in Numbers 8:30-31 shows that there are two types of sin that are recorded in Scripture. Believers are often prone to say that “sin is sin is sin,” but the Lord Himself distinguishes between sin, giving pardon for unintentional sin but no pardon or hope is provided for intentional sin (those committing intentional sin are stoned or killed, without remorse or regret). This sin is “unintentionally committed, without the knowledge of the congregation” (v.24). The phrase in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) for “without the knowledge” is ex opthalmon, meaning “out of sight.” In other words, the congregation wasn’t penalized for an action that it didn’t see with its own eyes. To see it was to know it based on observation, so the nation wasn’t punished for that which it did not observe with eyesight.
With unintentional sin, notice that the bull is to be offered with the grain and drink offering “as a sweet aroma to the Lord” (Numbers 15:24). The burnt offering was for the sweet aroma, while the sin offering was given to cover sin. As we’ve said earlier, Jesus meets the requirements for both sacrifices: not only is He the “sweet-smelling aroma” to God, but He was also the sacrifice for sin (see our work on Exodus 30). The sin offering for unintentional sin is “one kid of the goats” (v.24). The phrase for “one kid of the goats” is ximaron ex aigon. The word aigon refers to a goat (parent word aiks), while the word ximaron refers to a he-goat, a male goat or billy goat. So the kid referred to here is a male billy goat. This is the first time in our atonement study that we’ve seen a goat offered as a sin offering; usually, the Lord demanded bulls and rams, but rarely goats. Now, we see that the goat is offered for unintentional sin for the congregation by the priest.
Verse 27 refers to a person who commits unintentional sin, as opposed to the congregation mentioned in earlier verses. If an Israelite commits sin unintentionally, he or she is to bring “a female goat in its first year” for a sin offering, αἶγα μίανἐνιαυσίαν, the word aiga referring to a female goat as opposed to aigon referring a he-goat. The word used here for “make atonement” and “atonement” are the same, ἐξιλάσεται and ἐξιλάσασθαι. Though their endings are different, the endings are accommodations to their anatomy in the sentence.
Those who commit unintentional sin need only offer the required sacrifices and “it shall be forgiven” them, both the congregation and the person (vv. 25, 26, 28).
The incense makes atonement, stops the plague (Numbers 16)
In Numbers 16, we read that Israel rebelled against Moses and Aaron (and ultimately, the Lord) with 250 leaders of the congregation following the wicked counsel of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, On, and the sons of Reuben gathered against Moses and said, “You take too much upon yourselves, for all the congregation is holy, every one of them, and the Lord is among them. When then do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the Lord?” (Numbers 16:3)
Moses tells these men to prepare to see who the Lord confirms is holy and who isn’t by preparing themselves. Let’s read the context:
16 And Moses said to Korah, “Tomorrow, you and all your company be present before the Lord—you and they, as well as Aaron. 17 Let each take his censer and put incense in it, and each of you bring his censer before the Lord, two hundred and fifty censers; both you and Aaron, each with his censer.” 18 So every man took his censer, put fire in it, laid incense on it, and stood at the door of the tabernacle of meeting with Moses and Aaron. 19 And Korah gathered all the congregation against them at the door of the tabernacle of meeting. Then the glory of the Lord appeared to all the congregation.
20 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, 21 “Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.”
22 Then they fell on their faces, and said, “O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and You be angry with all the congregation?”
23 So the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 24 “Speak to the congregation, saying, ‘Get away from the tents of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram.’”
25 Then Moses rose and went to Dathan and Abiram, and the elders of Israel followed him. 26 And he spoke to the congregation, saying, “Depart now from the tents of these wicked men! Touch nothing of theirs, lest you be consumed in all their sins.” 27 So they got away from around the tents of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram; and Dathan and Abiram came out and stood at the door of their tents, with their wives, their sons, and their little children.
28 And Moses said: “By this you shall know that the Lord has sent me to do all these works, for I have not done them of my own will. 29 If these men die naturally like all men, or if they are visited by the common fate of all men, then the Lord has not sent me. 30 But if the Lord creates a new thing, and the earth opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into the pit, then you will understand that these men have rejected the Lord.”
31 Now it came to pass, as he finished speaking all these words, that the ground split apart under them, 32 and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, with their households and all the men with Korah, with all their goods. 33 So they and all those with them went down alive into the pit; the earth closed over them, and they perished from among the assembly. 34 Then all Israel who were around them fled at their cry, for they said, “Lest the earth swallow us up also!”
35 And a fire came out from the Lord and consumed the two hundred and fifty men who were offering incense.
36 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 37 “Tell Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, to pick up the censers out of the blaze, for they are holy, and scatter the fire some distance away. 38 The censers of these men who sinned against their own souls, let them be made into hammered plates as a covering for the altar. Because they presented them before the Lord, therefore they are holy; and they shall be a sign to the children of Israel.” 39 So Eleazar the priest took the bronze censers, which those who were burned up had presented, and they were hammered out as a covering on the altar, 40 to be a memorial to the children of Israel that no outsider, who is not a descendant of Aaron, should come near to offer incense before the Lord, that he might not become like Korah and his companions, just as the Lord had said to him through Moses. (Numbers 16:16-40)
250 leaders of the congregation died in that day because they stood with Korah, Dathan, and Abiram and On, and the sons of Reuben, against the word of the Lord and against the Lord’s anointed. The earth swallowed these men up, and the Lord spared the congregation because Moses and Aaron pleaded with the Lord to spare them: “O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and You be angry with all the congregation?” they asked the Lord (Numbers 16:22). The congregation was spared, but the congregation turned on Moses and Aaron the next day:
41 On the next day all the congregation of the children of Israel complained against Moses and Aaron, saying, “You have killed the people of the Lord.” 42 Now it happened, when the congregation had gathered against Moses and Aaron, that they turned toward the tabernacle of meeting; and suddenly the cloud covered it, and the glory of the Lord appeared. 43 Then Moses and Aaron came before the tabernacle of meeting.
44 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 45 “Get away from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.”
And they fell on their faces.
46 So Moses said to Aaron, “Take a censer and put fire in it from the altar, put incense on it, and take it quickly to the congregation and make atonement for them; for wrath has gone out from the Lord. The plague has begun.” 47 Then Aaron took it as Moses commanded, and ran into the midst of the assembly; and already the plague had begun among the people. So he put in the incense and made atonement for the people. 48 And he stood between the dead and the living; so the plague was stopped. 49 Now those who died in the plague were fourteen thousand seven hundred, besides those who died in the Korah incident. 50 So Aaron returned to Moses at the door of the tabernacle of meeting, for the plague had stopped. (Numbers 16:41-50)
The next day, the congregation told Moses and Aaron, “You have killed the people of the Lord” (v.41). In verse 44, the Lord tells Moses and Aaron exactly what He had told them the day before: “Get away from this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.” In verses 46 and 47, Moses tells Aaron to take the fire from the altar, put incense on it, and then run into the midst of the congregation. Now, even though Aaron was the priest, this still seems somewhat crazy to the mind to run into the midst of the congregation while the plague is going on, while the Lord is killing people. I wouldn’t have wanted to be in the middle of the death, but Moses was God’s man – and his words were as the words of the Lord to the nation of Israel, so Aaron did as instructed. He did this to “make atonement for them,” as Moses had said.
The word for “make atonement” is the same word we’ve seen before, exilasai, but it can be found in Numbers 17 in the Septuagint instead of Numbers 16 (Numbers 17:11 in the LXX, to be exact). Moses told Aaron to take a censor (Grk πυρεῖον, literally, a “fire container” or a “fire holder”) place fire from the sacrifice in it, then place incense on it, and take it in the midst of the people to pull back the plague and prevent further deaths among the Israelites. The fire and the incense represented the holiness of God; when the Lord saw the fire and the incense, His wrath would be ceased, propitiated, stilled, and the destruction from Him would come to an end. The Lord killed 14,700 in the disaster that resulted from the people accusing Moses and Aaron of murdering the people of God because of the 250 cense-holders and their families that died the day before in Korah’s, Dathan’s, Abiram’s, On’s, and the sons of Reuben’s rebellion against Moses and Aaron.
The fire showed the purity of God, the righteousness of God, and the incense represented a sacrifice that was pleasing, sweet, to the Lord God. This wasn’t the only time that God’s wrath had to be stopped. Another event is recorded in Numbers 25, where Phinehas, a grandson of Aaron the priest, kills an Israelite and the Midianite woman that the Israelite brought into the camp. The word of the Lord was against the intermarriage of Israel with the surrounding nations, but the Israelites disobeyed the Lord in this, too.
Now Israel remained in Acacia Grove, and the people began to commit harlotry with the women of Moab. 2 They invited the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate and bowed down to their gods. 3 So Israel was joined to Baal of Peor, and the anger of the Lord was aroused against Israel.
4 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Take all the leaders of the people and hang the offenders before the Lord, out in the sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord may turn away from Israel.”
5 So Moses said to the judges of Israel, “Every one of you kill his men who were joined to Baal of Peor.”
6 And indeed, one of the children of Israel came and presented to his brethren a Midianite woman in the sight of Moses and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, who were weeping at the door of the tabernacle of meeting. 7 Now when Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose from among the congregation and took a javelin in his hand; 8 and he went after the man of Israel into the tent and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her body. So the plague was stopped among the children of Israel. 9 And those who died in the plague were twenty-four thousand.
10 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 11 “Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, has turned back My wrath from the children of Israel, because he was zealous with My zeal among them, so that I did not consume the children of Israel in My zeal. 12 Therefore say, ‘Behold, I give to him My covenant of peace; 13 and it shall be to him and his descendants after him a covenant of an everlasting priesthood, because he was zealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’”
14 Now the name of the Israelite who was killed, who was killed with the Midianite woman, was Zimri the son of Salu, a leader of a father’s house among the Simeonites. 15 And the name of the Midianite woman who was killed was Cozbi the daughter of Zur; he was head of the people of a father’s house in Midian.
16 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 17 “Harass the Midianites, and attack them; 18 for they harassed you with their schemes by which they seduced you in the matter of Peor and in the matter of Cozbi, the daughter of a leader of Midian, their sister, who was killed in the day of the plague because of Peor.” (Numbers 25:1-18)
Numbers 25:10-13 is the Lord’s response to Phinehas’s action to stop the evil and thus, the plague, from affecting the nation of Israel. The Lord says that Phinehas “has turned back My wrath from the children of Israel” and “made atonement for the children of Israel” (vv.11, 12). The word for “turned back” is κατέπαυσεν or katepausen, from the parent word παύω or pauo, meaning “to make cease,” “to make desist,” or “to cause to cease.” What the Lord is saying here is that Phinehas’s killing of the Israelite man (Zimri a Simeonite) and the Midianite woman (Cozbi) made His anger desist and cease, caused the anger of God to cease because of Phinehas’s swift justice. Numbers 25 tells us earlier in the passage that “the anger of the Lord was aroused against Israel” because of their harlotry with the Moabites (the nation of Moab). Keep in mind that the nation of Moab, the Moabites, were descendants of Lot and his firstborn daughter who got Lot drunk, then went in to have sexual relations with Lot because she and her sister had no men with which to have sexual relations (see Genesis 19:30-38).
Other passages affirm the use of the word exilasetai, to make atonement, so there’s no need to continue to rehash ground we’ve already covered in the Book of Numbers.
Propitiation for Sin: The Doctrine of Atonement
1. Atonement in the Book of Exodus
2. Atonement in the Book of Numbers <-- You are here
3. Atonement in the Book of Deuteronomy
4. Atonement in The Books of 2 Samuel and 2 Chronicles
5. Atonement in the Book of Ezekiel
6. Atonement in the Book of Leviticus and a Conclusion